Progressive evolution as self-regulation of the World (inductive and deductive description of natural and social development) Прогрессивная эволюция как самоупорядочивание мира (индуктивное и дедуктивное описание естественного и социального развития).


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Article 3

 

Henry L. Zaltsman

EVOLUTION AND NATURAL INFORMATION

Keywords: progressive evolution, natural information, phylogenesis, ontogenesis.

Abstract: Every object of evolution, its living part, is considered as a recipient, transducer and source of information at the same time. In the course of evolution, the multilevel hierarchy of natural bearers of information is reconstructed as a succession:

- initial molecular bearers of genetic information produce more complex intracellular programmes (genes, chromosomes, genoms);

- cellular bearers of signal information produce more complex organs of regulation (reflexive, associative, representative brain);

- finally, personal organ – human mind – produces more complex forms of conventional social sign information (verbal, logical, interdisciplinary scientific cognitive models).

 

These stages of the progress of information bearers make the dominating factor that determines the direction of evolution. The progress may be regarded as a rise in spatial regularity of information flows: successive one-dimensional linear replication of genes (transfer of programmimg structures); two-dimensional fields of sensor and motor signal images (transfer of signal states); and three-dimensional omnidirectional inventions of the conventional sign thought (operation on abstract ideas).

 

In the second half of the last century the evolutionary approach became interdisciplinary. The terms well demonstrate this point: cosmogenesis, geogenesis, biogenesis, psychogenesis, anthropogenesis, sociogenesis, etc. The world history has been scaled in time, from the “Big Bang” to modern man, in the protensity of 13.7 billion years. Our century has witnessed another step towards knowledge of evolutionary events. There have been attempts to select the most significant events according to the criterion of growing stage of the complexity of objects, or their structural complication, etc. To go on, we can assume that those criteria to any evolutional object are, accordingly, determined by the existence and impact of the informational component. Thus, we put forward the idea of the role of information in the course of progressive evolution. To consider the idea, it is essential that we divide all objects of evolution into certain groups. Grouping the environment into immediate constituents was yet attempted in ancient Greece; nowadays, we consider our environment as a tetrad: cosmic (physical) world, organic (vegetable) world, animal world, and human world. To specify these particular worlds means to understand that they are not just a succession of segments on the general way of progressive evolution. Each successive world builds itself on the previous segment and makes a more complicated structure. So we should consider them as the stages of progressive evolution; to be more exact, as the large-scale stages. Let us outline the borders of the four stages of progressive evolution that correspond to the four particular worlds.


 

The four stages of progressive evolution represent four particular worlds in such a way that completion of the previous world initiates the start of the next one, thus passing on the baton of evolution. We should note another essential interrelation between particular worlds, i.e., hierarchical system-element structures. Objects of the previous world become elements of the subsequent one, and each subsequent world is an integrating system for the previous one. Hence, it makes the hierarchical tetradic line of particular worlds: molecules – cells – organs – organism (individual) as is demonstrated.




On each stage objects need stability to “hold” the superstructure; under all inevitably changing circumstances, objects and their interrelations must be invariably reproduced. The natural mechanism that has been worked out for the renewal of evolutionary objects is their informational self-regulation. Information mediates relations between objects through corresponding transformations: input encoding of structures or conditions of objects; transcoding; output decoding into a structure of condition of objects. The above mentioned natural structures serve as bearers of information, which let us regard such information as natural. Only in human society individuals produce signals (sonic, optic or motorial) that bear symbolic social meanings as information bearers, and such information should be regarded as artificial. The process of informational regulation is determined by a corresponding algorithm of transcoding input information into output information, i.e. by a certain set of successive operations (transformations) for each information bearer. Such operations (transformations) are special for each particular world. Objects of the organic world (we omit the physical pre-informational world) are characterized by operations of copying the structure of genetic information bearers (replication, reduplication). Eventually, programmed (regulated) reproduction of objects is attained. Objects of the animal world are characterized by direct transcoding of informative neuronal signals into commands regulating the animal’s behaviour. Man is characterized by the operation of setting conventional (social) definitions of ideas as information bearers in his cognitive models. Thus the process of cognition is formed and determined (regulated). Those complicated transformations of natural information in particular worlds could develop by the only possible natural way – by means of natural selection of mutant objects that were able to adapt to changing conditions of existence in the environment. Let us consider information formed on different stages of progressive evolution and is included into the structure of particular worlds. Figure 1 demonstrates comparative characteristics of natural information on different stages of progressive evolution (the first stage – pre-informational – of realization of the cosmic world is excluded).



Fig. 1. Comparative characteristics of particular worlds and their regulating information





INTENSIONAL METHOD OF WORLD SELF-REGULATION

Here three stages of the progress of natural information are demonstrated, and, if to take into consideration the 0-dimensiomal (physical) stage, this is the tetradic line of progress of information. So, the main question is: how is formation and development of information realized on each stage? To answer it, let us unwind each stage of progressive evolution into a hierarchical line.

 

I. Pre-informational material realization

 

 

II. Organic world – initial (singular) informational genetic programmed reproduction

 

 

III. Animal world – secondary (multiple) informational signal-regulated behaviour.

 


 

IV. Human world – tertiary (universal) informational symbolic determined cognition.

 

 

The description of progressive development in each particular world demonstrates how it can be formalized in tetradic hierarchical lines. The progress of objects includes the progress of constituent bearers of natural information as conductors. They determine the state of all other components of the object, while those, in their turn, reproduce information bearers. Total scanning of the four particular worlds – 4x4 evolutionary objects, information bearers included – is summed up in Figure 2.

 

 

 

The successive numeration of objects corresponds to their growing complexity, while the model is formed as an element-systemic hierarchy where each antecedent object is an element for the subsequent one, and each subsequent object is a system for the antecedent. These sixteen objects may be deployed into sixty-four derivative objects, which has been demonstrated earlier (1 – 4), which will make the utterly possible tree of replication under the proposed method of modeling. There is also another model which may help to estimate the role of information in the process of evolution. Let us consider phylogenesis as regards individual ontogenesis of modern man. (Figure 3).

 

 

 

 

The dynamics of consecutive periods of human ontogenesis fully corresponds to the evolution of all three particular worlds which serve as material for the nature to create ourselves. Thus, each of us confirms the model. In conclusion, invariant tetradic lines of progressive evolution are thought as a succession of the four steps from chaos to order, while the steps, in their turn, are regarded as stages of consecutive acquisition of three-dimensionality by information bearers and flows. Therefore, the proposed tetradic four-level tree of fissions is regarded as a fundamental form naturally determining the essence of progressive evolution, that is to say, actually, the history of the world. The leading role belongs to information and its progress from the transfer of programming molecules to the transfer of signal states and, finally, to the spread of conventional intelligent ideas. Thus, the natural information channel serves as the channel of progressive evolution.

 

1. Zaltsman G.L., Progressive evolution (interdisciplinary scientific and informational determination ). www.zaltsmangl.ru

2. Zaltsman G.L., Self-regulation of the world (scientific axiomatic deductive description). www.zaltsmangl.ru

3. Henry L.Zaltsman, Toward the theory of progressive evolution (large-scale stages of evolutionary progress), The Journal of General Evolution, volume 65, number 3, April 2009

4. Zaltsman G.L., Sovremennoe miroponimanie. SPb: Nauka, 2004



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