Progressive evolution as self-regulation of the World (inductive and deductive description of natural and social development) Прогрессивная эволюция как самоупорядочивание мира (индуктивное и дедуктивное описание естественного и социального развития).


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TOWARDS A THEORY OF PROGRESSIVE EVOLUTION
(Large-scale stages of evolutionary progress)

Keywords
Transdisciplinary approach, stages of progress, physical realization, biological reproduction, animal organ regulation, human gnostical determination



Objectives


On the way towards a theory of progressive evolution, it is important:
1. To define criteria for transdisciplinary evolutionary progress. They are large-scale evolutionary finds that last through further development and determine the structure and functions of man.
2. To define the unified transdisciplinary scientific form of progressive objects. It is based on the acknowledged transdisciplinary approaches that let systematize objects into a unified form of progressive evolutionary systems to define relations between them. Current theories are enough for forming a hierarchy of systems but lack potential for forming an evolutionary meta-system. Therefore, we use the fundamental principle of tetradic ordering. These three premises help to deductively construct (develop) a formal meta-system in accordance with the evolutionary progress of the universe.
3. To give scientific transdisciplinary interpretation of the meta-system objects that form large-scale stages of progressive evolution (according to current scientific data).
4. The resulting meta-system with a limited number of objects (56) is more comprehensible and reflects the general world order, from the universe derivatives to human cognitive achievements.

Criteria for large-scale progress

There is no unified conception on progressive development of evolutionary objects since, by physicists, it implies the growth of complexity of structures and bonds; by biologists, it implies variants of changeability of reproducing beings; by sociologists, it implies the level of development of a society and its members. The physical thermodynamics of disbalance systems sets the direct quantitative characteristics of progress. It is the entropy decline in isolated systems to balance condition, which makes them grow (and thus, also contributes into the increase in information). Biology has developed this problem in details on the qualitative level. Biologists distinguish between adaptive and progressive evolution. Say, the upper (fore) extremities -fins of fish, wings of birds, fore legs of hoofed animals, arms of monkeys - are examples of adaptation to environmental conditions while, in higher animals and man, two pairs of extremities, bilateral symmetry and unified body structure are intact progressive evolutionary acquisitions. Nevertheless, not every evolutionary change manifested by this or that disciplinary science retains on the further stages of evolution. As a tool of transdisciplinary approach, I introduce a unified universal criterion of evolutionary progress, which consists of large-scale evolutionary "finds" that last out in all further representatives of a given branch of the tree of evolution leading to man and form the essence of his structure. (The criterion can be also regarded as a variant of anthropic principle according to which this world is based on conditions that have made possible the appearance and evolution of man.) In other words, the "tree of evolution" has its trunk, i.e. a progressive hierarchical line of evolutionary objects that range from the early universe to man with his developed intellect. Nowadays it is a trivial task to fill this line with scientific objects and reconstruct their hierarchy. Nevertheless, under detailed consideration, the movement within the "trunk of evolution" seems to be a bilateral counter-directed hierarchical genesis of evolutionary systems characterized by the opposition of general global systems of connection and local structured systems (Table 1). With initial global systems of connection, it means successive transitions from the whole (system) to the part (element), while with the initial local systems it means successive transitions from the part (element) to the whole (system). According to these data, the modern man in his positive achievements can be regarded as the greatest highly organized creation of nature since he is the longest succession of more and more complicated hierarchical local systems. At the same time, he is the most subordinate and dependent of them because he is included into the longest hierarchy of internal bonds of global systems.

Table 1.



Therefore, the first step towards transdisciplinary scientific synthesis is the isolation of a set of large-scale progressive evolutionary objects according to the mentioned criterion. Such a set appears at the retrospective well-ordered picture of the world. Incalculable diversity of real forms of existence studied by disciplinary sciences can be pictured as a limited number of generalized classes within a new language just as interminable hieroglyphic images turn into a set of letters within an alphabet.

Unified transdisciplinary scientific formal description of evolutionary progress

There is no unified model of progress for objects on different levels of development, which makes impossible any exact comparison. To reconstruct it we may use acknowledged transdisciplinary approaches, i.e. evolutionary, systemic and synergetic.
The evolutionary approach, originated from C. Darwin, has first spread to biological sciences (evolutionary morphology, physiology, biochemistry, etc.), then to pre-biological sciences (cosmic genesis, geo-genesis) and post-biological sciences (anthropic, gnoseological and sociological genesis). Acknowledged as an all-disciplinary principle of evolutionism, it defines standard properties of transdisciplinary evolutionary process, which manifests itself in a variety of disciplinary "counter-categories", such as differentiation - integration, progress - regress, convergence - divergence, globalization - localization, etc.
The systemic approach, originated from L. Bertalanfi, defines the structure of objects as interaction between constituents of a system of elements and their bonds. This approach has gained apprehension as a standard transdisciplinary systemic principle. In the second half of the last century, both approaches united in one systemic-evolutionary method. It regards existing objects as evolutionary systems and/or their constituents, while their development is a genesis of elements, systems and hierarchies.
Synergetic approach, by A. Hagen, considers systems and their progress as self-organization by defining its physical mechanisms, e.g. decrease of entropy in disbalance systems. Nowadays, synergetic approach applies mathematic tools to analysis of separate processes and objects on some levels of evolutionary development, therefore it may be also considered transdisciplinary.
Successfully applied to various particular scientific fields, none of these conceptions has yet led to working out a general transdisciplinary picture of the universe evolution. This caused certain disappointment and lack of interest in them among a number of scientists. In my opinion, the point is that the scope of every individual transdisciplinary conception is limited. For example, the evolutionary method allows analyzing universe from the point of view of common processes; the systemic method - from the point of view of structure; while the synergetic method - from the point of view of ways of their development.
However, by integrating all three approaches into the unified evolutionary-systemic-synergetic conception can help us to picture all developing objects in a transdisciplinary form of progressive evolutionary systems reflecting natural object-process unity and self-development.
The next step is transdisciplinary description of initial principles. According to the theory of evolution and theory of systems, systems are generated from elements, structures and bonds in such a way that they determine each other. Hence there follow two types of system formation: a) structured systems where structures are determined by bonds, and b) connection systems where bonds are determined by structure-carriers, general bonds and media included. Such inverse systems can be regarded as transdisciplinary scientific counter-principles. Progressive development of such systems is fundamentally different. In structured systems hierarchies are built as a result of secondary binding; connection systems develop through repeated structural transformations. With this, we are within the theory of system, however the form of unified progressive evolutionary meta-system is not defined yet. To do it we need new - and more general - principles. Decades of studying progressive evolution of systems let me put forward the unified tetradic principle of hierarchical formations. From cognitive point of view, it appears quite relevant.
The tetradic form may be reconstructed as a descending hierarchical division of the universe towards initial elements or as an ascending hierarchical unification of initial elements towards the universe; it is important that both operations should lead to the unified form. In the first case the universe ~ 4 local worlds ~ 4x4 their levels ~ 4x4x4 initial elements. In the second case, initial elements ~ 4 in forming the line ~ 4x4 in forming local worlds ~ 4x4x4 in forming the universe. These are the grounds of forming an exact formalized model of progressive evolutionary meta-system.
To pass on from initial counter-principles to ascending formation of the next transdisciplinary level of progress of evolutionary systems, i.e. to the 4-member line of their progressive development, we must give an transdisciplinary scientific definition of four counter-transitions of initial counter-elements: two of them are system-to-system and two are system-to-counter-system. Generalization of real prototypes allow us to picture the transition of an initial global system of connection as its differentiation into a local system of connection, while the transition of a local structured system as its integration into a global one. The transition of a system of connection to a structured system is a direct inversion and their reverse counter-transition is a reverse inversion. On these grounds, we can form a cycle, or line of progressive self-development of evolutionary systems:





These four types of systems are definite and constant in such a cycle at all incalculable variants of intermediate transitional systems (see above). Therefore, four types of constant initial and final systems determining every new direction of further self-development become original for further formations of local worlds.
The next level of the transdisciplinary scientific model reconstructs hierarchical progress lines of evolutionary systems, which presents the essence of every local world. Hierarchical lines also appear in the course of repeated system formations, although, unlike the presented cycle, every repeated system is ordered by one level, since it is determined not by previous initial elements but by their derivative systems. For example, the progress of bound systems in space is subsequently determined by such structures-carriers as quanta, compound corpuscles, atomic nuclei, which form the corresponding physical fields. For each one of the four types of initial systems the process of hierarchical ordering - as can be seen from the subsequent facts - is final, four-leveled. These four levels, or steps, characterize the natural progress from the initial - chaotic or accidental - ordering, via single, partial or group towards the complete final one. (Thus, in the initial cycle there are only two constant members: initial and final).
The next level consists of progressive subsequent evolution of four local worlds. Local worlds (cosmic, or inorganic; organic; animal; and human) progress as subsequent superstructures for a part of the precedent world to overtake the baton of evolution. They are equal by form as four-level progress of composing lines in each of them, with all differences in their structures and their information component.
Four local worlds compose the universe. Comparative study of internal constituents of local worlds allows us to conclude that the leading part belongs to the progress of internal informational flows. Thus, multilateral energy carriers determine informational state of realized inorganic systems at every given moment. All inorganic self-reproducing systems differentiate two informational flows of substance carriers aimed at self-reproduction (through metabolism) and reproduction of self-like issue. In all self-regulating animal species, we can recognize three signal flows of conveying information, commanding vegetative information regulating the state of the environment, and somatic information regulating behavior in the environment. In human thinking, we can differentiate four operational flows of information: notifying information; commanding information that regulates behavior; and two counter-directed operational flows of information between ideal images reflecting relationship of real objects as their prototypes.
The next level is the universe. We define the universe as an evolutionary meta-system that includes four subsequently progressing local worlds.
The intentional interpretation of progressive evolutionary systems goes on in terms of modern scientific disciplines where initial elements are energy, substance (matter) and derivative information.

Intentional disciplinary scientific interpretation of evolutionary objects


The scientific interpretation of progressive evolution of systems is presented in Tables 2.1-4. See detailed explanations below.
I. Evolutionary progress of physical systems in the cosmic world: realization of free energy and its material ordering (Table 2.1).

Table 2.1


1. The initial non-ordered free energy-realizing bonds of the universe (the quantitative characteristics and sign undetermined). Fluctuations of energy appear as quantum-energy or substance structures. Since the first epochs of the early universe, such processes have not retained (the greater part of the early substance, the dark mass and energy, are not available to the direct scientific study nowadays).

2. The primary ordered system formation - the realization of primary material gravitational-corpuscular proto-cosmic bodies. System formation of bonds (media). The initial global media retained from the early epochs of the Universe appear as formation of regularly reproduced specialized quanta, carriers of distant interactions: gravitons , photons, and, accordingly, gravitational and electromagnetic fields (a manifestation of corpuscle-wave dualism). The development completes with local realization of elementary particles (leptons) and, probably, quarks. The system formation of structures. The initial local single binding of differentiated quarks into a compound hadronic structure and their final global binding into nebulas and proto-galactic cosmic bodies.
3. The secondary ordered system formation - realization of secondary material plasma-nuclear cosmic bodies. System formation of bonds (media). Initial global structuring of a part of galactic media realizes in the appearance of specialized compound elementary particles (Bose particles), carriers of the so-called weak interactions with all existing structures. Final local structuring is realization of fermions (one of quantum states of a corpuscular field), nucleons included. The system formation of structures. Initial local binding of groups of differentiated nucleons (protons and neutrons) into atomic proto-nuclei final global plasma binding of atomic nuclei into cosmic star bodies.
4. Tertiary ordered system formation realizes in tertiary-substantial - aggregated molecular cosmic bodies. System formation of bonds (media). Initial global structuring of a part of astral media following realization of stabile nuclei with properties of heat transfer. The process completes with local nuclear-electronic realization into final products, i.e. atoms (ions). System formation of structures. Initial local binding of atoms differentiated by their charge or covalent properties into molecules. Final aggregate-molecular total binding into planetary cosmic bodies. These final evolutionary systems complete the progress of materialization of the cosmic universe and become initial for the progress of reproducing the next organic world to overtake the baton of development. The latter is fundamentally different by its information character. While in the inorganic world information is derivative from external non-address energy processes that correspond the internal state of structured objects and do not affect the progress of realization, i.e. materialization of energy, in the real world informational flows for each representative of the organic world are structured as self-reproducing carriers of substance and are bidirectional at self-reproduction and reproduction of the likes.

II. The evolutionary progress of biological systems of the organic world: reproduction of free molecular substance and its initial-informational (structured-programmed) ordering (Table 2.2).

Table 2.2



1. Initial non-ordered free substance-reproducing physical-chemical bonds of the planetary biosphere realize in the dispersive medium of the world ocean ("primordial broth") with inflow of nutritive energy from outside. This process results in reproducing, alongside with the other, low-entropy molecular structures (constructions) in the dispersive phase of the ocean. Nowadays there are no natural conditions for non-biogenous origin of life on Earth.
2. The primary ordered system formation - primary structured-programmed reproduction of metabolic macromolecular protobionts. System formation of bonds (media). Initial global structuring of a part of biosphere by specific organic molecules, carriers of reproducing bonds with their own and surrounding molecular structures. Final self-reproducing (autocatalytic) bonds of organic molecules. System formation of structures. Initial local linear binding of specific organic monopeptide amino acid molecules into the simplest protein polypeptide macromolecules and their derivative secondary and tertiary binding into biocatalyst enzyme structures. They provide selective transformations of substrata into final products via intermediate temporary formation of substrate-enzyme complexes. Final global metabolic combination of macromolecules into protoplasmic self-reproducing protobionts, which marks beginning of the flow of life, i.e. phylogenesis. Metabolic protobionts have not retained and perhaps can be found in organic fossils.
3. Secondary ordered system formation is secondary structured-programmed reproduction of genetic organoid bionts. System formation of bonds (media). Initial global structuring of a part of protoplasm by specific energy-rich macromolecules, macroergs (more often this is adenosine triphosphoric acid - ATP), accumulating energy of anabolic enzymatic catalysis and triggering catabolic processes of energy release into work. Final local structuring of specific genetic macromolecules (four types of nucleotides, deoxyribonucleic acid - DNA), selectively coding in the set reproduction of a definite protein-enzyme. System formation of structures. Initial local group binding of genes into a double helix of genetic organoid, i.e. chromosome (with possible untwisting of helix threads and their completion in daughter cells). Final global binding of genetic organoides into the cell nucleus of a eukaryotic biont determines the possibility of amitotic non-ordered cell division and thus turns phylogenesis into a chain of ontogenesises, i.e. successive nascence of individual genetically similar organisms.
4. Tertiary ordered system formation is tertiary structured-programmed reproduction of somatic multicellular organisms - imagobionts. System formation of bonds (media). Initial global vegetative reproduction of cell nucleus, parthenogenesis. System formation of structures. Sexual (gamete) reproduction (cells with haploid set of chromosomes), initial local binding into somatic zygote cell (with diploid set of chromosomes). Final global binding of zygote cells into a multicellular somatic organism-imagobiont. These final evolutionary systems complete the progress of programmed reproduction of organic world and become initial for the progress of organ-operational signal regulation of the animal world that overtakes the baton of development. These final evolutionary systems complete the progress of the programmed reproduction of the organic world and become initial for the progress of organic-operational signal regulation of the animal world that overtakes the baton of evolution. In every animal, informational flows are tri-directional and enclosed in the regulated medium through nerve system: flows of conveying information and flows of commanding information aimed at internal and external media to provide behavior.
III. Evolutionary progress of neuro-psychic systems of the animal world: regulation of free programming signals and secondary informational (organ-operational) ordering of motor-secretory activity of organism in the internal and external media (Table 2.3).
Table 2.3


1. Initial non-ordered signal-controlled bonds of the internal humoral medium of a multicellular organism and initial regulating cellular derivative structures - chemical stimuli, e.g. prostaglandins, and other initial accidental metabolic waste.
2. Primary ordered system formation - primary organ-operational regulation of reflex central marrow. System formation of bonds (media). Initial global structuring of the internal medium of a multicellular organism by specialized cells - carriers of hormonal (mediator) bonds with surrounding structures. Final local structuring of transmitters through their transformations in the internal channels of specialized cells-neurons. System formation of structures. Initial single binding of differentiated sensory and motor neurons into reflex arches of nerve centers (ganglions) and final multiple binding of centers into reflex marrow of lower animals (invertebrates).
3. Secondary ordered system formation is secondary organ-operational regulation of associative-zonal cerebral cortex. System formation of bonds (media). Initial global structuring of the internal medium of the reflex marrow by specialized, unspecific (polysynaptic) reticular formation centers, determinants of common states of organism: sleep, consciousness, excitation, etc. Subsequent superstructure of local specific (monosynaptic) projective centers with their internal channels of punctuate correspondence of input and output. System formation of structures. Initial local binding of groups of differentiated ascending and descending projections by associations in the fields of cerebral cortex. Final completing unifying connection of multi-modal associative fields into the full-developed cerebral cortex of higher organisms (vertebrates).
4. Tertiary ordered system formation is tertiary organ-operational regulation of abstractive representative image-bearing cerebrum. System formation of bonds (media). Initial global structuring of cerebral cortex by specialized supra-modal associative fields: the occipital cerebrum generalizing sensor associations and the frontal cerebrum generalizing motor associations. The conclusive phase is the super-structure of representative zones in the dominant hemisphere, which enables the cerebrum to receive generalized and abstract signals via their channels. Initial local binding of current and mnestic, sensor and motor abstract associations into cognitive-operational systems. In completion, there is multiple binding of cognitive operational structures in the abstracting cerebrum of hominids, the higher branch of primates. These final evolutionary systems complete the progress of organ-operational regulation of the animal world and become initial for the progress of gnostic determination of cognitive processes in the human world where man overtakes the baton of evolution. In every man, information takes the form of tetra-directional gnostic operational cycle of cognition where counter-transitions of ideal abstractive (semiotic) carriers come to correspondence with the relations of their real prototypes through input conveying and output commanding information.
IV. Evolutionary progress of gnostic systems of the human world: determination of free operations of mind and their tertiary-informational (gnostic) ordering (Table 2.4).

Table 2.4




1. Initial non-ordered easily determinable operational bonds of the individual mind as a functioning part of the abstractive mind and initial abstractive-figurative "voluntary" sign structures - associative concepts of Homo sapiens (and a modern baby).
2. Primary ordered system formation - primary gnostic definitions of the protological social cognition. System formation of bonds (media). Initial global bonds following the appearance of specialized conventional communicative concepts of a given community: gestures, mimics, vocal commands. Final monosemantic concepts bound with this or that action of community members. System formation of structures. Initial local single binding of a semantic concept-meaning and concept-expression into a monomial verbal structure. Final binding of words into the verbal, socially objective community cognition, which, evidently, appears at the stage of the primitive society (and of our early childhood).
3. Secondary ordered system formation - secondary gnostic definitions of logical propositional thinking. System formation of bonds (media). Initial global structuring of the objective thinking with specialized words-names of various objects perceived by the society. Final appearance of specialized words-concepts with their internal bonds between a volume (a set of united objects) and content (a set of their peculiar properties). System formation of structures. Initial local binding of differentiated concepts (substantive and attributive) into a binomial logical proposition as a choice from a group of possible bonds. Final multiple binding of propositions into formalized objective thinking, which signifies the formation of the civilized society (while within such a society it is formed in childhood).
4. Tertiary ordered system formation - tertiary gnostic definitions of synthesized transdisciplinary scientific tetra-category thinking (prognosis). System formation of bonds (media). Initial global structuring of objects of universal thinking through specialized category propositions defining various universal objects and processes in nature and society. Final formation of counter-category propositions defining internal relations between prototypes determined by the development of universals. System formation of structures. Initial local binding of differentiated ("counter-organized") counter-category propositions into tetramerous categories (or counter-dicategories) as basic expressions, e.g. interrelations between structures and bonds in the course of formation of evolutionary systems or between space and time in the description of the universe. Final multiple binding (hierarchical development) of tetracategories and formation of the formalized objective trans-scientific thinking for the future informational society (so far, individual achievements in the modern society). The final evolutionary systems complete the process of cognition fixed in various forms of thinking; and, apparently, complete the total progress of evolutionary systems, as modern sciences do not know more highly organized objects and processes.
The consideration of scientific prototypes of progressive evolutionary systems has shown that their common property is tetradic self-organization at all levels of development. First, there are four types of systems that form periods, or cycles of development (with the exception of the initial non-ordered period that has not retained where there are only two of them). Second, there are four-period hierarchical lines formed in the course of development and composed of four periods in each particular world. Third, there are four particular worlds forming the universe. Totally, there are fifty-six scientific objects. The first tetrad is based on the counter-directed development of opposite systems of bonds and systems of structures, i.e. on differentiation and integration, direct and reverse inversion. The second one is based on four consecutive states of ordering: initial non-ordered (chaotic) state; primarily determined single ordering; secondarily determined partial or group ordering; and tertiary determined final ordering - full (total) ordering. Such tetradic progress of hierarchical lines is based on the system of bonds in which every subsequent phase is determined not by the previous structural element but by its first, second or third derivative systems, whereas the determining bonds, accordingly, progress in structural systems. The third, tetradic, ordering of the universe is determined by the progress of structural and informational organization of the constituent local worlds.
Thus, information that emerges under the energetic-material manifestation of the cosmic universe does not practically determine its progress but rather is its by-product.
The progress of reproduction of substances in the organic world is determined (mediated) by constant bi-directional information flows, internal and external, programming derivative objects, while the program reconstructs itself in the reproducing object. As a result, in the course of metabolism and energy exchange with the environment, the living substance reproduces (self-reflects) itself, which progresses as division of phylogenesis into ontogenetic chains of individuals and their genetic changes necessary for survival.
The progress of organ-operational regulation of free signals of an animal organism is determined (mediated) by reverse tri-directional or group information with consecutive flows of its conveying and commanding constituents in parts of the nervous system enclosed in the internal and external environment. Consequently, genetic adaptations to the environment are overlapped by behavioral reactions. The latter progress with improvement of representation of environmental objects in images and abstract signs alongside with perfection of response reactions.
Finally, we come to gnostic definitions of human cognitive operations. They are determined by universal free multilateral counter-transitions of information units (beginning with ideas) of the ideal sphere of mind, realized as "mental activities". The real sphere of mind operates with corporeal activities, i.e. behavioral and command-information interrelations with real prototypes. As a result, the intellect establishes and reflects object-to-object relations of the society members, surrounding objects and their various groups - up to the universe. Gnostic correlation between ideal images and their real prototypes fixes in progressive forms of logical thought. In philosophical terms, it means that initial real material objects, in their final ideal images, are reflected in the mind of a thinking subject.
This is the result of intentional transdisciplinary scientific approach to the tetradic world order.

Formal description of Meta-system of progressive evolution


Thus, generalizing natural objects and processes in the terms of transdisciplinary scientific and tetradic hierarchical reasons, I have worked out a formal model of the progress of evolutionary systems. This model has undergone transdisciplinary inductive interpretation, which is generalized here as the conception of the progressive evolutionary meta-system (Table 3). The four-step periods of the progress come horizontally, and their four-level lines in particular worlds are positioned vertically. Their sequence forms particular worlds and the universe as a whole. The meta-system unites a limited number (56) of progressive evolutionary systems. In the secondary transdisciplinary scientific form they identify initial scientific objects whose prototypes represent the pathway of development of the universe. Each object has two identifications fixed with two-digit indexation. It identifies its position in the course of evolutionary intra-disciplinary scientific (in unities) and transdisciplinary (in tens) progress; and all of them reflect the development of initial natural elements.

Table 3




Consequences
First, construction of the progressive evolutionary system provides a way to systematizing disciplinary sciences basing on the level of progress of the objects under study. Second, consequence of constructions is the proposed new way to establish correspondence between evolutionary systems located at the same level of development in their hierarchical lines of particular worlds - this is the basic principle of construction of the meta-system itself. While Baconian inductive method is based on strict comparison of simple initial real objects (which opened the way for experimental sciences), transdisciplinary scientific induction strictly compares secondary scientific concepts of real progressive evolutionary objects. Examples of their correspondence may be traced for all four types of systems (global and local systems of bonds and structured systems) in their hierarchical lines throughout all particular worlds. For example, the third line - the local ordered binding of differentiated structures followed by formation of local structured systems. Such binding is identically repeated in the cosmic world, differentiated quarks form a compound corpuscle; nucleons-protons and neutrons form atomic nucleus; atoms form molecules. In the organic world, differentiated monopeptides-amino acids form polypeptides or proteins; haploid nucleotides-genes are built up to diploid set in a chromosome; somatic organoids form a somatic cell. In the animal world, sensory and motor neurons form a reflex central arch; ascending and descending projections form associative cortical bonds; and abstract representations form a mental operational structure. In the human world, semantic representations of meaning and expression are united into words; semantic concepts of object and property - into propositions; di-counterpropositions of principle and counter principle - into tetra-category. Such strict comparisons will allow scientists better understanding of their objects and discover lacking links and parts. I can only hope that methods of formal transdisciplinary induction will find their way into sciences and cause positive effects.



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